Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular from 1890 to 1910. As a reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was influenced by the shapes and structures of nature, especially the curved lines of plants and flowers.
The French word Art Nouveau is used in English (new art). The style is similar to types popular in many European countries around the same time. It is called Secessionsstil in Austria, after the Vienna Secession, Modernismo in Spain, Modernisme in Catalonia, Secese in Czech, Sknvirke or Jugendstil in Denmark, Jugendstil, Art Nouveau, or Reformstil in Germany, Szecesszió in Hungary, Stile Liberty or Stile Floreal in Italy, Jugendstil in Norway, and Secesja in Poland.
Art Nouveau is a complete style of art. It includes architecture, painting, graphic art, interior design, jewelry, furniture, textiles, ceramics, glass art, and metal work, among other fine and decorative arts.
By 1910, Art Nouveau was no longer popular. First, Art Deco and then Modernism took over as the most popular style for building and decorating in Europe.
Art Nouveau got its name from the Maison de l'Art Nouveau (House of the New Art), a gallery that showed the new style and was opened in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealer Siegfried Bing. Due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts movement, Art Nouveau was sometimes called "Modern Style" in France. In Britain, it was called "Art Nouveau." It was also called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro (after the iron and glass subway entrances designed by Hector Guimard), Art Belle Époque, and Art end of the century.
In Belgium, where the movement started, it was sometimes called "noodle style" or "coup de fouet style" (whiplash style).
In Britain, it was called the Modern Style because Charles Rennie Mackintosh led the " Glasgow style " in the Arts and Crafts movement in Glasgow, the "Glasgow style."
Because designs from London's Liberty & Co. department store were so popular in Italy, it was sometimes called the "Liberty style," "floral style," or "Arte nova" (New Art).
In the United States, it was often called the "Tiffany style" because of Louis Comfort Tiffany.
Around the same time, a similar style appeared in Germany and Scandinavia. It was called Jugendstil, after a famous German art magazine of the same name. In Austria and the nearby countries that were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, a similar style called Secessionsstil in German (szecesszió in Hungarian and secede in Czech) or Wiener Jugendstil, named after the artists of the Vienna Secession, grew up.
In Catalonia, a similar style was called "Modernisme." In Spain, it was called "Modernismo" or "Arte Joven," which means "young art." It was called "Arte nova" (new art) in Portugal. In Russia, it was called Modern; in Germany, it was called Jugendstil; in the Netherlands, it was called Nieuwe Kunst, which means "new art."
Some names, like Stile Floreal ("floral style") in France, Paling Stijl ("eel style") in the Netherlands, and Wellenstil ("wave style") and Lilienstil ("lily style") in Germany, referring to the organic shapes that were popular with Art Nouveau artists.